Follow our e-learning course.

Develop your own coastal adaptation strategy by learning key methodologies and techniques.

The IMCORE project ran from 2008 to 2011 and was funded under the EU Interreg IVB programme.

VIDEO: David Green, David Fryer and Peter Inglis share their views on the issues that affect Aberdeen and planning for adaptation to climate change


 "The city is susceptible to flash flooding and important infrastructure is at risk".  Conclusion from workshop   
"As scientists we need to help get accurate and meaningful messages across to the public. David Green
To make sure we reach out to the public we used advertising on local buses                     Guillaume de la Fons

Access or download overviews, tools, techniques and examples of visualisation tools, educational tools, legal and policy tools, future scenario techniques, etc

Practical tips for following the IMCORE approach to planning to adapt to coastal climate change 


Study Area

Aberdeen beach and the Queens Links area - situated directly behind it - (to the West) are important assets for Aberdeen City, while the nearby harbour is a major contributor to the local and regional economies and a key transport link, hosting fishing and shipping industries The Kings Links golf course, beach boulevard and other local amenities add to economic importance of Aberdeen beach.

The beach is located to the east of the city centre. The beach extends 3.5km from the River Dee (and Aberdeen Harbour) in the south to the mouth of the River Don in the north and includes/has 30 timber groynes and blockwork revetments along its length. The study area can be seen in figure 1.


Figure 1: Map of Aberdeen coast with main areas of interest annotated

Drivers of climate change

The effects of climate change on coastal erosion and flooding are the focus of this case study. The main ways in which these phenomena are likely to be affected are through predicted increases in storminess (ACC 2002) and wave velocity, as well as increases in sea level which, although predicted to be of relatively small magnitude, will nevertheless increase the vulnerability of coastal areas to damage by the sea.

The case study also examines climate change factors not directly related to the sea but which are likely to have an impact on Aberdeen, such as increases in extreme precipitation events and increases in air temperature.

Information Sources:

• Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2007), Fourth Assessment Report, click here to view

• UK Climate Projections Briefing Report

• UK Climate Projections Science Report: Marine & Coastal Projections

• Marine Climate Change Impacts Annual Report Card 2007–2008

• SEPA flood maps. Click here to view


Impacts of climate change

Sea defences

Sea level rise has a direct influence on flood damage both in terms of frequency of occurrence and extent (depth). Increased wave height and energy at the coast in areas of shallow water means more overtopping of defences ( Also wave forces on defences and natural systems will be greater. Combined higher water levels (and where applicable wave heights) leads to increased mobility of soft coastal features and more likelihood of switching from a stable coastline to an eroding one. This increases pressure for new defences which in turn puts further pressure on natural systems. Short, Mid, and LongTerm Impact.


Impacts to shoreline and coastal erosion defences will eventually deleteriously affect infrastructure if the coastline progresses landward. Damage from increased flooding will also negatively affect coastal transportation networks. Mid to LongTerm Impact.


Warming sea temperatures could lead to a decrease in habitat for locally important fisheries (whitefish, primarily herring and haddock), as well as an increase in invasive species (such as jellyfish) whose habitat could expand northward with a rise in temperatures. LongTerm Impact.


Warmer temperatures, increased rainfall, and other changes in climate might alter the growing season and impact agriculture in the area. LongTerm Impact.

Commercial/residential areas

With current sea level rise predictions, Footdee as well as the attraction area (amusements and with many cafes and restaurants) will become more vulnerable to flooding during storms, as it is already a low lying area and has experienced flooding in the past due to its exposed location. The economic viability of this historic fishing village as a settlement could eventually be compromised if flooding proves regular. The harbour could also be vulnerable to flooding if sea level rise continues, and if its operation is significantly affected there could be repercussions for the local economy.

Limitations for adapting to issues

One factor affecting local adaptation to climate change is a perceived lack of data/information on climate change impacts, ineffective communication and organisation between organisations potentially responsible for instituting and implementing climate change adaptation policies and programmes. For instance, considering the lack of data, it was noted by attendees that little actual data on local sea level rise exists and that most of the available evidence was anecdotal.

ICZM and institutional context

Roles of the main actors dealing with climate change and coastal management (Source: Hastings, E. (2010) The State of the East Grampian Coast. Aberdeen: Macaulay Land Use Research Institute –Now THE JAMES HUTTON INSTITUTE)

The legal situation and ownership relating to the coastal and marine environment is extremely complex and in turn affects its management. The territorial sea of the UK extends out to 12 nautical miles (nm) and within this limit, the Crown Estate own virtually all of the sea bed and approximately 55% of the foreshore (the area between MHWS7 and MLWS8 in Scotland). The remainder of the foreshore is in private ownership, including the Ministry of Defence, the Forestry Commission, Local Authorities and Harbour Authorities as well as a number of conservation bodies. The owner of land usually has the exclusive rights to that land including the use of it and how it is managed.

The East Grampian Coastal Partnership (EGCP) is a voluntary group of individuals and organisations who have an interest in the wellbeing of the local coast between Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh and the mouth of the River North Esk, by St Cyrus.

ICZM (Source: Hastings, E. (2010) The State of the East Grampian Coast. Aberdeen: Macaulay Land Use Research Institute – Now THE JAMES HUTTON INSTITUTE).

The Scottish Coastal Forum (SCF) was set up at a national level in 1996 to deal with coastal issues in Scotland and to communicate with Government in terms of ICZM. Part of the SCF 's role is to encourage the formation of Local Coastal Partnerships and to further progress ICZM in Scotland. At present, ICZM in Scotland is not enshrined in statute and therefore a voluntary approach is taken; predominately delivered by Local Coastal Partnerships. However, the actual effectiveness of ICZM in the current situation has been questioned. It has been seen to be more theoretical and rarely transferred into practice as a successful way of managing the coast (Chaniotis and Stead, 2007). The lack of funding available to implement ICZM has also played a major role in its effectiveness.

Institutional blockages:

• Generally, all sectors are equally affected by the constraints on implementing climate change adaptation measures listed herein. Among the constraints are

• public apathy to adaptation;

• lack of funds to implement adaptation measures;

• lack of qualified/experienced personnel to formulate policy and implement effective adaptation strategies;

• lack of coordination across administrative organisations.

You can download the full Aberdeen Beach Case study here

You can download The State of the East Grampian Coast here

This learning portal brings together the results and lessons learned from the IMCORE project. This project was funded under the Interreg IVB programme from 2008 to 2011.

 footertransparent updated